Know the Cancer Types of Blood and Their Symptoms - Medic Quotes
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Wednesday, June 5, 2019

Know the Cancer Types of Blood and Their Symptoms

There are three types of blood cancer according to the origin of the cancer cells. The three types of blood cancer have different symptoms. Let's learn more about the types, symptoms, and causes of blood cancer.

Blood cancer occurs when blood cells grow abnormally and are not controlled. As a result, these cells cannot function properly and interfere with other blood cell production.

The blood cells themselves can be divided into 3 types, namely red blood cells (which carry oxygen), platelets (play a role in the blood clotting process), and white blood cells (to fight infection).

Types and Symptoms of Blood Cancer

There are various types of blood cancers that are named according to the origin of the cancer cells. general way, blood cancer is divided into 3 types, namely:


Leukemia is a type of blood cancer that originates from white blood cells. In this condition, immature white blood cells divide rapidly but do not develop into mature cells.

These incompletely developed blood cells will continue to divide until there is more in the bone marrow. As a result, the function of the bone marrow in producing normal blood cells is disrupted.

Based on the development of the disease, leukemia is divided into two types, namely acute leukemia that develops very rapidly and chronic leukemia that develops slowly, and takes several years until symptoms appear.

In addition to the development of the disease, leukemia can also be categorized according to the type of cell affected. There are four types of leukemia, namely:

  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

Signs and symptoms of leukemia can be:

  • Anemia, with signs of fatigue, dizziness, pallor or shortness of breath.
  • Blood clotting disorders, with characteristics of easy bruising, easy bleeding (usually on the gums), heavy menstrual blood, and bloody or black stools.
  • Easy to get infected, have a fever, or sweat at night.
  • Enlargement of the spleen and liver.
  • Swollen lymph nodes.
  • Weight loss without obvious reasons.

Some of the signs and symptoms of blood cancer do not always appear in patients with leukemia. Therefore, to diagnose it properly, it is necessary to do a physical examination by a doctor along with supporting examinations, such as routine blood tests and bone marrow aspiration.


Lymphoma is a type of blood cancer that attacks the lymphatic system, including lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland, tonsils, and bone marrow.

The lymphatic system functions to carry lymph fluid consisting of white blood cells called lymphocytes. The lymphatic system acts as the body's defense, especially in fighting infections.

There are many types of lymphoma, with different symptoms and treatments. But broadly speaking, lymphoma is divided into two types, namely Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Symptoms of lymphoma are sometimes not typical, but the condition can be suspected if complaints arise in the form of:

  • Enlargement of lymph nodes that are not painful, especially in the neck, armpit, or groin.
  • Weight loss.
  • Fever.
  • Fast tired and often weak.
  • Hard to breathe.
  • Itchy.
  • Cold sweat at night.
  • Weight loss. 


Myeloma is a cancer of blood originating from plasma cells in the bone marrow. Plasma cells play a role in making proteins called antibodies (immunoglobulins) to fight infection.

In patients with myeloma, plasma cells that experience cancer will make abnormal antibodies. These antibodies cannot fight infection properly, they can even reduce the number of normal antibodies made.

Myeloma cells can spread from the bone marrow to the hardest part of the bone, causing damage to bone tissue. Myeloma can attack several bones, so it is often referred to as multiple myeloma.

Signs and symptoms of myeloma in the early stages tend to be unclear. But over time, this type of blood cancer can show several symptoms in the form of:

  • Bone pain
  • Bones break easily
  • Tingling
  • Limp and pale from lack of blood
  • Easy bruising and bleeding in the gums
  • Infection easily
  • Kidney disorders
  • Increased levels of calcium in the blood due to damaged bone cells

Causes of Blood Cancer

So far the exact reason why someone can get blood cancer is still unknown. However, there are several factors that are known to increase a person's risk of developing blood cancer, namely:

  • Have a family member who has blood cancer.
  • Often exposed to toxic substances, such as fertilizers, chemical waste from factories, smoke, or cleaning products.
  • Infected with certain viruses, such as HIV, Epstein-Barr, hepatitis, or herpes.
  • Have undergone chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Often exposed to radiation or radioactive substances.

Age factors also often affect the type of cancer that the blood has suffered. ALL leukemia mostly affects children aged 3-5 years. Whereas lymphoma, myeloma, and leukemia AML types, more often affect adults and the elderly.

Blood Cancer Medication

After being diagnosed, blood cancer treatment will be given according to the type of blood cancer that is suffered, as well as the age and health condition of the sufferer. Treatment can be chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and drugs to kill cancer cells.

In some cases, the oncologist may also recommend surgery, such as a bone marrow transplant or removal of the spleen.

The success rate of treatment for blood cancers varies. But usually, the earlier the cancer is diagnosed and treated, the greater the chance of recovery. Therefore, if you experience various signs and symptoms above, immediately consult a doctor.

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